, This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. It contains 231,429 words in 354 pages and was updated on December 2nd 2020. Women’s March on Versailles An angry mob of armed women demanded that the king and queen vacate Versailles and come with them to Paris. At the end of the Ancien Régi… [41], At about six o'clock in the morning, some of the protesters discovered a small gate to the palace was unguarded. In the post-Bastille period, price inflation and severe shortages in Paris became commonplace, as did local incidents of violence in the marketplaces. The National Constituent Assembly also relocated to the Tuileries, its sessions held in the Salle du Manége, an indoor hall used for riding lessons. A proposed decree [by the Assembly] was read out to the women. Some even penetrated the palace and threatened Marie Antoinette. At Versailles, the Assembly remained ignorant of most of the Paris events, but eminently aware that the Marshal de Broglie stood on the brink of unleashing a pro-Royalist coup to force the Assembly to adopt the order of 23 June and then to dissolve. The revolution's capacity for violence was as yet not fully realized. , This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. It contains 231,429 words in 354 pages and was updated on December 2nd 2020. Women’s March on Versailles An angry mob of armed women demanded that the king and queen vacate Versailles and come with them to Paris. At the end of the Ancien Régi… [41], At about six o'clock in the morning, some of the protesters discovered a small gate to the palace was unguarded. In the post-Bastille period, price inflation and severe shortages in Paris became commonplace, as did local incidents of violence in the marketplaces. The National Constituent Assembly also relocated to the Tuileries, its sessions held in the Salle du Manége, an indoor hall used for riding lessons. A proposed decree [by the Assembly] was read out to the women. Some even penetrated the palace and threatened Marie Antoinette. At Versailles, the Assembly remained ignorant of most of the Paris events, but eminently aware that the Marshal de Broglie stood on the brink of unleashing a pro-Royalist coup to force the Assembly to adopt the order of 23 June and then to dissolve. The revolution's capacity for violence was as yet not fully realized.
17 Jan 2021

/* 728x90, created 7/15/08 */ "Marching On Versailles… Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson [60] Yet most of the Revolution's foremost histories describe any involvement of the Duke as ancillary to the action, efforts of opportunism that neither created nor defined the October march. [42][43], The chaos continued as other royal guards were found and beaten; at least one more was killed and his head too appeared atop a pike. The women in the fish market would start the march toward Versailles that had been discussed so much in the previous weeks. [24] But it was the crudely decisive invasion of the palace itself that was most momentous; the attack removed forever the aura of invincibility that once cloaked the monarchy. [48], After the king withdrew, the exultant crowd would not be denied the same accord from the queen, and her presence was demanded loudly. Lafayette reluctantly took his place at the head of their column, hoping to protect the king and public order. google_ad_height = 90; They milled around the palace grounds with rumors abounding that the women's deputation had been duped – the queen would inevitably force the king to break any promises that had been made. Rumors of a plot aiming to destroy wheat crops in order to starve the population provoked the Great Fear in the summer of 1789. Reformist deputies had managed to pass sweeping legislation in the weeks after the Bastille's fall, including the revolutionary August Decrees (which formally abolished most noble and clerical privileges) and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The women had come to say that Paris was short of bread. The October Days, as this period is known, brought a century of royal government at Versailles to an end. For revolutionaries, the preservation of their recent legislation and the creation of a constitution were paramount, and a lockdown of the king within reformist Paris would provide the best possible environment for the Revolution to succeed. Following the signing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the next major event of the French Revolution saw a mob a Parisian women march to the Palace of Versailles in order to force the royal family to return to Paris. History plainly shows that the march of civilization across the world has been one long, greedy, grab... ...side of corruption. Long live King Orléans! Additional soldiers were mobilised to restore order and clear the palace of invaders. The October March on Versailles, as it became known, proved a pivotal movement in the French Revolution and the fate of King Louis XVI. The storming of the Bastille had occurred less than three months earlier. [17] The Hôtel de Ville itself was ransacked as the crowd surged through taking its provisions and weapons, but Maillard helped prevent it from burning down the entire building. But, politics then weren't any simpler than politics now. MessageToEagle.com – The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. The Women’s March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution. google_ad_slot = "6416241264"; [1] At the end of the Ancien Régime, the fear of famine became an ever-present dread for the lower strata of the Third Estate, and rumors of the "Pacte de Famine" to starve the poor were still rampant and readily believed. The next day, the crowd compelled the king, his family, and most of the French Assembly to return with them to Paris. The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. The Women’s March on Versailles is a reminder of the power of popular protest movements. During the October Days, as many as 30,000 people laid siege to Versailles and petitioned the king and the National Constituent Assembly. Once the women reached the entrance to Versailles, they were chanting the word bread over and over again to the beat of a drum. Some furniture, clothing and other royal belongings were carted from Versailles to the Tuileries. In viewing the king’s apartment, which he had not left a quarter of an hour [before], with those slight traits of disorder that showed he lived in it, it was amusing to see the blackguard figures that were walking uncontrolled about the palace, and even in [the king’s] bedchamber; men whose rags betrayed them to be in the last stage of poverty, and I was the only person that stared and wondered how the devil they got there. "[40] Many scholars believe that the Duke paid agents provocateurs to fan the discontent in the marketplaces and to conflate the women's march for bread with the drive to bring the king back to Paris. google_ad_client = "ca-pub-2707004110972434"; AUSTRIAN Committee, at Tuil... ...ERTHIER, Intendant, fled, arrested and massacred. [24], United Kingdom, European Union, Italy, Canada, Spain, French Revolution, New York City, World Bank, Food, Sweden, France, Haiti, Rum, French Revolution, French Guiana. It is to my good and faithful subjects that I confide all that is most precious to me”. In March began among women in the marketplaces of Paris, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and shortage of bread. The price of bread (the staple food for most Parisians) was through the roof. [18][24] However pleased it may have been by the royal displays, the crowd insisted that the king come back with them to Paris. When the October journées took place, France's revolutionary decade, 1789–1799, had barely begun. [37] Infuriated, the rest surged towards the breach and streamed inside. In the words of one of the officers: "Everyone was overwhelmed with sleep and lethargy, we thought it was all over. A historian’s view: Most marchers, it seems, were desperately hungry and hoped to petition the king to alleviate bread shortages in Paris. [51], The rest of the National Constituent Assembly followed the king within two weeks to new quarters in Paris. 1. Famine was a real and ever-present dread for the lower strata of the Third Estate, and rumors of an "aristocrats' plot" to starve the poor were rampant and readily believed. "[47] The relieved king briefly conveyed his willingness to return to Paris, acceding "to the love of my good and faithful subjects". In October 1789, thousands of Parisians, many of them women, embarked on a 12-mile march to Versailles, the residence of the French king Louis XVI and the National Constituent Assembly.          Political / Social. March! He participated in several later journées, but in 1794 became stricken with illness, dying at the age of thirty-one. Antoinette avoided the women by fleeing through the palace’s maze of bedrooms, a move that probably saved her life. The power of the King was irreversibly curtailed, and he never again dwelt at Versailles. Lafayette brought her to the same balcony, accompanied by her young son and daughter. [8][9] Speakers at the Palais-Royal mentioned it regularly throughout the next month,[10] creating enduring suspicions of the proprietor, Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. Monarchists and conservatives of all degrees had thus far been unable to resist the surging strength of the reformers, but by September their positions were beginning, however slightly, to improve. Meanwhile, the Assembly’s president, Jean-Joseph Mounier, arranged for a deputation of six women to be admitted to the palace. Maillard deputized a number of women as group leaders and gave a loose sense of order to the proceedings as he led the crowd out of the city in the driving rain. The march symbolized a new balance of power that displaced the ancient privileged orders of the French nobility and favored the nation's common people, collectively termed the Third Estate. [3], The king's court and the deputies of the National Constituent Assembly were all in comfortable residence at the royal city of Versailles, where they were considering momentous changes to the French political system. The episode gave him a lasting heroic status among the poissardes and burnished his reputation as a patron of the poor. On the afternoon of October 6th the king, his family, his royal retinue and several deputies to the Assembly departed Versailles for Paris. Their carriages were accompanied by the crowd, the procession numbering between 30,000 and 40,000 people. Desperate, he made his abortive flight to Varennes in June 1791. In constitutional negotiations they were able to secure a legislative veto power for the king. In 1789, one loaf of bread cost more than half a day's pay for the common workers. [50] A sense of victory over the ancien régime was imbued in the parade, and it was understood by all that the king was now fully at the service of the people. Excessive Violence By October 5th, the situation in Paris had reached critical mass. Context. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). [15] Their numbers continued to grow and with restless energy the group began to march. [14], On the morning of 5 October, a young woman struck a marching drum at the edge of a group of market-women who were infuriated by the chronic shortage and high price of bread. By October 4th, Parisians were taking to the streets in protest, not just about the conduct of soldiers at Versailles but also a chronic shortage of bread and other foods. The Women's March on Versailles, also known as The October March, The October Days, or simply The March on Versailles, was one of the earliest and most significant events of the French Revolution.The march began among women in the marketplaces of Paris who, on the morning of 5 October 1789, were near rioting over the high price and scarcity of bread. Three eyewitness accounts of the October Days (1789) [13], Following the mutiny of the French Guards a few hours before the storming of the Bastille, the only troops immediately available for the security of the palace at Versailles were the aristocratic Garde du Corps (Body Guard) and the Cent-Suisses (Hundred Swiss). As he spoke, the restless Parisians came pouring into the Assembly and sank exhausted on the deputies' benches. Feeding children seemed like an impossible task. AUSTRIA quarrels with France. [65] As one historian states, it was "one of those defeats of royalty from which it never recovered". Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles. [2], At the same time, there was common resentment against the reactionary attitudes prevailing in Court circles[16] even before the uproar sparked by the notorious banquet precipitated the political aspects of the march. [7] A menacing unrest was in the air,[12] and many nobles and foreigners fled the oppressive atmosphere. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. Are you an author? [39] Outside, an uneasy night was spent in which his Parisian guardsmen mingled with the marchers, and the two groups sounded each other out. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Behind them, at a distance, Lafayette followed with the National Guard. [22] At four o'clock in the afternoon, fifteen thousand guards with several thousand more civilian latecomers set off for Versailles. Many of the Assembly’s deputies, including Honore Mirabeau and Maximilien Robespierre, mingled freely with the people and listened to their grievances. It is impossible not to like this careless indifference and freedom from suspicion. [27], The crowd traveled the distance from Paris to Versailles in about six hours. Hungry, fatigued, and bedraggled from the rain, they seemed to confirm that the siege was a simple demand for food. As the Revolution progressed, he was hounded into exile by the radical leadership. [32], Lafayette, though initially acclaimed, found that he had tied himself too closely to the king. In due course, the rioters' attention turned again to Versailles, and they filtered back to the streets. google_ad_width = 160; France’s monarch and national government relocated to Paris and became subject to groups and forces within the capital. David Andress, historian. [23] Members of the Assembly greeted the marchers and invited Maillard into their hall, where he fulminated about the Flanders Regiment and the people's need for bread. In May of 1789, the Estates-General began to consider reforms, and in July, the Bastille was stormed. Those who marched on Versailles so for different reasons. CONSTITUTION, French, completed, will not march, burst in pieces, new, of 1793. Versailles was maintained, an acknowledgement that the king might someday return, however, neither Louis or his family would see the splendour of Versailles again. Though allegations of his specific actions concerning the October march remain largely unproven, he has long been considered a significant instigator of the events. An account of the October Days by Adrien Duquesnoy recalls that “ten, twenty, thirty thousand people were coming to Versailles, intent on seizing the king according to some, seeking to force the [National] Assembly to hasten its work, according to others”. The mob had no single leader or figurehead but one significant instigator was Stanislas Maillard, a coarsely spoken officer in the National Guard and one of the leaders of the July raid on the Bastille. Others wanted the plead with the king to leave Versailles and return to Paris, where he would be away from what they perceived as the corrupting influences of the aristocracy. The reformist deputies were well aware that the four hundred or more monarchist deputies were working to transfer the Assembly to the distant royalist city of Tours, a place even less hospitable to their efforts than Versailles. , This article will be permanently flagged as inappropriate and made unaccessible to everyone. It contains 231,429 words in 354 pages and was updated on December 2nd 2020. Women’s March on Versailles An angry mob of armed women demanded that the king and queen vacate Versailles and come with them to Paris. At the end of the Ancien Régi… [41], At about six o'clock in the morning, some of the protesters discovered a small gate to the palace was unguarded. In the post-Bastille period, price inflation and severe shortages in Paris became commonplace, as did local incidents of violence in the marketplaces. The National Constituent Assembly also relocated to the Tuileries, its sessions held in the Salle du Manége, an indoor hall used for riding lessons. A proposed decree [by the Assembly] was read out to the women. Some even penetrated the palace and threatened Marie Antoinette. At Versailles, the Assembly remained ignorant of most of the Paris events, but eminently aware that the Marshal de Broglie stood on the brink of unleashing a pro-Royalist coup to force the Assembly to adopt the order of 23 June and then to dissolve. The revolution's capacity for violence was as yet not fully realized.